obligate marine fungi

Marine fungi are not a taxonomically or physiologically defined group of organisms; rather, they are an ecologically defined group. Iran. The cell walls of green seaweeds are formed by ulvans consisting of sulfated rhamnose residues as the main units linked to uronic acids (Kim, 2011; Vera et al., 2011; Synytsya et al., 2015). Cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin are the main polysaccharides of plant cell walls that are strengthened by an aromatic heteropolymer lignin preventing their enzymatic digestion (Ochoa-Villarreal et al., 2012). Thus, only two thermostable (50–60°C) fucoidanases from marine fungi Dendryphiella arenaria TM94 and Fusarium sp. Mar. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2009.233, Kohout, P., Sýkorová, Z., Ctvrtlíková, M., Rydlová, J., Suda, J., Vohník, M., et al. New ulvan-degrading polysaccharide lyase family: structure and catalytic mechanism suggests convergent evolution of active site architecture. Therefore, an idea of using marine fungi for the plant and algae biotransformation has been successfully exploited for the production of low-cost edible protein and highly valuable biochemicals, as well as for wastewater treatments (Beena et al., 2011; Harms et al., 2011; van Leeuwen et al., 2012). 196, 745–752. Marine fungi are a diverse group of opportunistic and obligate organisms isolated from marine environments [1, 2]. 1B), the anamorphs (Fig. In addition, white-rot fungi have up to 12 members of ligninolytic peroxidases from the AA2 family, distinguishing them from brown-rot fungi, which contain no AA2 members (Floudas et al., 2012; Hori et al., 2013; Levasseur et al., 2013). The expression of two additional isozymes of the lignolytic manganese peroxidases (MnP) in Phlebia sp. Alginates and fucoidans of brown macroalgae were also required additional enzymatic treatment and saccharification during their conversion into biofuels (Kim, 2011; Abdallah et al., 2016; Trincone, 2018). and Kohlmeyer (1979), “Obligate marine fungi are those that grow and sporulate exclusively in marine or estuarine habitat. In the cases of putative cleaving β-1,3-glucans, the auxiliary domains CBM43 and CBM13 were shown to associate with GH5 and GH17, respectively (Blackman et al., 2014). Full text Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. (2015). Feng, X., Chen, H., Xue, D., and Yao, S. (2013). Kamat, T., Rodrigues, C., and Naik, C. G. (2008). Pectins are differed by three main structures: homogalacturonan (linear polymer), xylogalacturonan (branched by β-1,3-linked D-xylose), and rhamnogalacturonan. 10, 8450–8460. (2015). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4471-2324-8_2, Vera, J., Castro, J., Gonzalez, A., and Moenne, A. doi: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2010.12.007, Keywords: filamentous fungi, marine-derived fungi, glycoside hydrolases, algae polysaccharides, plant polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, lignocellulolytic enzymes, Citation: Balabanova L, Slepchenko L, Son O and Tekutyeva L (2018) Biotechnology Potential of Marine Fungi Degrading Plant and Algae Polymeric Substrates. Many unknown fungal species, even at higher taxonomic levels in the Chytridiomycota forming an ancient evolutionary lineage, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota found in the deep-sea water, and the molecular clock estimates of their rRNA evolution suggested the hypothesis that fungi initially diversified in the ocean before they colonized the land (∼400 million years ago) (Le Calvez et al., 2009; Manohar and Raghukumar, 2013). J. Res. doi: 10.3118/jjse.5.21. (2018). Although the data on marine fungi with the sequenced genomes are restricted, they carry sufficient information about the common ancestral forms of life with terrestrial fungi such as the capability of utilizing plant polysaccharide complexes for their growth (Arfi et al., 2013; Kumar et al., 2015). A. E. A. doi: 10.1590/S1517-838246220140359, Del-Cid, A., Ubilla, P., Ravanal, M. C., Medina, E., Vaca, I., Levicán, G., et al. Facultative marine fungi have physiologically adapted to the marine environment and can grow and most likely sporulate in seawater, yet may originate from terrestrial and freshwater habitats. In fungi, three types of amylolytic enzymes are produced: α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3) and α-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) belonging to the GH13, GH15 and GH31 families (Chen et al., 2012). What is an obligate marine fungi? J. Chem. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.537480, Cong, B., Wang, N., Liu, S., Liu, F., Yin, X., and Shen, J. (2015). The chemical composition and content of seaweed polysaccharides changes depending on the seasons, age, species, and location (Kim, 2011). Therefore, the gene sequences encoding CAZymes of marine fungi should be explored on their functionality to use in the genetic modification and metabolic improvement of the biotechnological strains, particularly for their cultivation at the high salt concentrations or other extreme conditions in industry or bioremediation of soils and water. Finding stable effect of pH and temperature. Microbiol. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M405867200, Chamorro, S., Viveros, A., Alvarez, I., Vega, E., and Brenes, A. Morgenstern, I., Powlowski, J., and Tsang, A. The marine-derived strains Basidiomycete MEG2, Pezizomycetes CMCA22 and GPG3 showed an increased the EG activity at low temperatures with the addition of sophorose precursor, cellobiose (Alsheikh-Hussain et al., 2014). (2015). One challenge hindering the field of marine mycology (the study of fungi) is defining which fungi are truly ‘marine.’ Many species collected from marine environments are already well-known from terrestrial habitats. 53, 275–282. Isolation and selection of fungi for degrading saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and NSO compounds. Lignin-degrading marine fungi have been mostly identified in mangroves and seagrasses (Raghukumar, 2008; Arfi et al., 2013; Panno et al., 2013; Sette and Santos, 2013; Bonugli-Santos et al., 2015). Ecol. Indian J. Appl. Front. The pectin-like structures in macroalgae may be different from those of the higher plants through the higher galacturonic and glucuronic acid content as well as an uncommon glucuronic acid-galactose disaccharide (Eder and Lütz-Meindl, 2008, 2010). Many of these belong to the straminipilan fungi and are widespread in the sea. Draft genome sequence of the deep-sea ascomycetous filamentous fungus Cadophora malorum Mo12 from the mid-Atlantic ridge reveals its biotechnological potential. Basidiomycota is the other phylum of Dikarya. The high levels of mannanase activity comparable to the cellulase and xylanase activities were determined in all 11 marine fungal strains studied by Arfi et al. Food Sci. Facultative forms are originally sourced from terrestrial or fresh water region but they are able to colonize and adopt with the marine habitat and the obligate are extensively live in marine ecosystem (Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer, 1979). Filamentous fungi possess the metabolic capacity to degrade environment organic matter, much of which is the plant and algae material enriched with the cell wall carbohydrates and polyphenol complexes that frequently can be assimilated by only marine fungi. 31, 433–441. Fungal Genet. J. Ind. Relatively few species float freely in the water column, and those are mostly yeasts. Braz. Totally 71 literature source focused on the study of the Black Sea fungi (micromycetes) for the period from 1867 to 2018 was analyzed. You can find fungi anywhere you look: mud, beach sand, on algae, in corals, detritus in mangrove swamps, estuarine grasses, and even nestled in the gut of crustaceans (Hyde et al. Remarkably, the laccases of the marine strains Nigrospora sp. Surprising spectra of root-associated fungi in submerged aquatic plants. Biochemistry 78, 746–759. Microbiol. Bioremediation potential of hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi from select marine niches of India. Biotechnol. Secondary metabolites of fungi from marine habitats. Influence of NaCl and Na2SO4 on the kinetics and dye decolorization ability of crude laccase from Ganoderma lucidum. A. oryzae and Penicillium sp. Microbiol. Many extra- and intracellular enzymes of marine fungi such as GHs, nucleases, proteases, and lipases involved in the degradation of cell walls, DNA, proteins, and other organic matter have been structurally or/and biochemically characterized and showed the higher specific activity and effectiveness in comparison with those from their terrestrial counterparts (Nielsen et al., 2007; Kamat et al., 2008; Beena et al., 2011; Harms et al., 2011; Balabanova et al., 2012; van Leeuwen et al., 2012). In the oxidative method for the industrial decolorization or delignification with the use of laccase or the laccase/mediator system, the redox potential difference between the enzyme and the substrate is a relevant indicator of its biodegradability (Giardina et al., 2010; Desai and Nityanand, 2011). Arfi, Y., Chevret, D., Henrissat, B., Berrin, J. G., Levasseur, A., and Record, E. (2013). Among the extracellular enzymes of 90 marine fungal strains degrading polysaccharides, amylases and β-1,3-glucanases were most widespread, particularly in the genera Fusarium, Geomyces, and Echinobotrium, whereas the enzymes cleaving CM-cellulose, agar, and fucoidan were rare (Burtseva et al., 2003). Microbiol. MG-60 have been found to synthesize new transcripts of lignolytic enzymes (isozymes) in secretomes produced in saline conditions (Kamei et al., 2008; Arfi et al., 2013). Facultative marine fungi have physiologically adapted to the marine environment and can grow and most likely sporulate in seawater, yet may originate from terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Marine fungi as a potential source of enzymes and antibiotics. obligate marine fungi, for those growing exclusively in a marine habitat, and facultative marine fungi, for those isolated from the freshwater or terrestrial origin, and also from the marine environment. The fungal pectinolytic enzymes that degrade multiple pectic molecules have been suggested to be good indicators of the association between fungi and the land plant lineage (Chang et al., 2015). 162, 2177–2188. Synytsya, A., Čopíková, J., Kim, W. J., and Park, Y. I. I. Investigation of marine-derived fungal diversity and their exploitable biological activities. J. Pharm. The marine isolates Calcarisporium sp. A different polysaccharide structure as well as cell wall properties and functions of the unicellular green algae could explain a reduced activity in its pectin methylesterases (PME) in comparison to the higher plants (Eder and Lütz-Meindl, 2008, 2010). We should still reduce plastic pollution and prevent future oil spills. marine fungi are aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms that are able to grow in marine environments.10 Until 1991, only 321 species of obligate marine fungi had been described,11 the majority belonging to the class Ascomycete, which are found in shallow waters, frequently associated with marine algae, decomposing wood,7 … S.-K. Se-Kwon Kim (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), 543–590. Int. A., Bonugli-antos, R. C., Miqueletto, P. B., Passarini, M. R. Z., Silva, C. H. D., Justo, M. R., et al. 1B), the anamorphs (Fig. J63. According to a commonly accepted definition, they are divided into obligate marine fungi, which grow and sporulate exclusively in the marine or estuarine environment, and facultative marine fungi, which may grow in marine as well as freshwater or terrestrial habitats. Background: Marine fungi are a diverse group of opportunistic and obligate organisms isolated from marine environments. isolated from an obligate marine fungus, the compound had been previously isolated from a terrestrial species (Kupka et al., 1981). Biodeterior. The CAZymes have been well surveyed in the terrestrial basidiomycetes and ascomycetes (van den Brink and de Vries, 2011; Rytioja et al., 2014). (2015). The marine strains of the white soft-rot fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. Discovery of the genes involved in the delignification pathways in marine fungi can help to understand their mechanisms to exploit their potential as efficient biomarkers for bioremediation. 3:147. doi: 10.4172/2155-6199.1000147. “Ligninolytic enzymes from marine-derived fungi: production and applications,” in Marine Enzymes for Biocatalysis: Sources Elsevier (New York, NY: Elsevier), 403–427. Chem. Recently, the full-length or partial sequences of the multigene laccases from the marine-derived fungi with bioremediation potential have appeared in GenBank (Supplementary Table 3). Receive both the printed Magazine mailed to you monthly as well as access to all our... READ MORE, Over the years, Texas Saltwater Fishing Magazine has been the source of some of the most valuable advice, articles, tips and reviews related to fishing the Gulf Coast... READ MORE, Our user's privacy is important to us at TSF Magazine. doi: 10.1007/s12010-011-9392-y, Chen, W., Xie, T., Shao, Y., and Chen, F. (2012). Phylogenomic relationships between amylolytic enzymes from 85 strains of fungi. 35, 197–202. Marine-derived fungi from Kappaphycus alvarezii and K. striatum as potential causative agents of ice-ice disease in farmed seaweeds. et al. and Kohlmeyer (1979), “Obligate marine fungi are those that grow and sporulate exclusively in marine or estuarine habitat. BMC Genomics 15:486. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-486, Li, X., Xu, J.-Z., Wang, W.-J., Chen, Y.-W., Zheng, D.-Q., Di, Y.-N., et al. Sci. 55, 249–272. (2011). They are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (long, branching filamentous structures). Mar. Genomewide analysis of polysaccharides degrading enzymes in 11 white- and brown-rot Polyporales provides insight into mechanisms of wood decay. BMC Genomics 15:6. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-6, Zhu, Y., Chen, P., Bao, Y., Men, Y., Zeng, Y., Yang, J., et al. CBMAI 1328 and Arthopyrenia sp. Approximately 21, 19, and 16% of new bioactive metabolites obtained from the marine fungi come from those associated with algae, sponges, and mangrove habitats, respectively (Rateb and Ebel, 2011). Energy 15, 4432–4435. 280, 530–537. It has been shown that while fucose was well consumed by several fungal species, their growth on fucoidan did not allow the biomass production, indicating the absence of fucoidanases in these marine fungi (Wang et al., 2016). Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. Appl. J. Jpn. The most represented genera Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Acremonium associated with seagrass, Posidonia oceanica, were rich in the strains able to produce ligninolytic enzymes and tannases useful at degrading and detoxifying lignocellulose residues in the presence of high salt concentrations (Panno et al., 2013). doi: 10.1016/j.nbt.2010.10.001. There are at least nine families of the pectin-specific enzymes, including GH28, GH53, and GH93, polysaccharide lyases of PL1, PL3, PL4, and PL11, and CEs of CE8 and CE13. Sci. CBMAI 1063 cultivated in saline conditions (Otero et al., 2017). Received: 15 March 2018; Accepted: 19 June 2018;Published: 10 July 2018. Food Chem. Polar Res. The discovery of thraustochytrids in 1936 and that of obligate marine, lignicolous fungi in 1944 provided tremendous impetus to the study of marine fungi. Thus, the lignicolous marine fungus Havispora longyearbyenensis from Arctic water significantly reduced even the growth without salinity at 4°C (Pang et al., 2011). 5:19. doi: 10.1186/s13568-015-0106-7, Payne, C. M., Knott, B. C., Mayes, H. B., Hansson, H., Himmel, M. E., Sandgren, M., et al. doi: 10.15373/2249555X/MAR2013/102, Sette, L. D., and Santos, R. C. B. 31, 19–35. The fungal enzymes degrading algal polysaccharides can be categorized into the same protein families and classes according to the CAZy classification as the plant-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (Figure 1 and Supplementary Table 2). “Fungal treatment of crop processing wastewaters with value-added co-products,” in Sustainable Bioenergy and Bioproducts, eds K. Gopalakrishnan, J. H. van Leeuwen, and R. C. Brown (London: Springer-Verlag), 13–14. (2016). Among the straminipilan fungi, those belonging to Labyrinthulomycetes, comprising Biodegrad. Chin. De novo transcriptome assembly: a new laccase multigene family from the marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. Algal Res. The unique properties of the enzyme rather related to its structure distinguished from the reported terrestrial analogs (Beena et al., 2011). Biochem. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2016.11.016, Giardina, P., Faraco, V., Pezzella, C., Piscitelli, A., Vanhulle, S., and Sannia, G. (2010). Microbiol. Enzymes of GH28 are important for the degradation of pectin backbones by fungi (van den Brink and de Vries, 2011). Thus, the marine laccases, peroxidases, and tannases could be of great interest in both biotechnology and ecology in the cases where a high concentration of salts are required, particularly in the extremely cold environments (Kamei et al., 2008; Raghukumar, 2008; Pang et al., 2011; Bonugli-Santos et al., 2010; Menezes et al., 2010; Feng et al., 2013; Sette and Santos, 2013). (2012). While most can’t fully mineralize hydrocarbons on their own, they work cooperatively with oil-degrading bacteria – fungi break down the tough carbons; bacteria decompose the resulting simpler carbons. A., Vieira, J. M. F., Videira, A., Meirelles, L. A., Rodrigues, A., Taniwaki, M. H., et al. Biotechnol. Taxonomically characterized marine fungi are belongs to either facultative or obligate forms. The importance of chytrid fungi in parasitism of marine phytoplankton is increasingly recognized, and fungal parasites are also known from invertebrates, fish, and even top predators such as seals and … Appl. Laccases: a never-ending story. The microbial producers of fucoidanases are rare and the enzyme properties are poor studied despite the biotechnology potential of fucoidans (Ermakova et al., 2015; Trincone, 2018). doi: 10.1007/s00709-009-0040-0, Ermakova, S., Kusaykin, M., Trincone, A., and Zvyagintseva, T. (2015). It has been suggested that the marine Ascomycota are major candidate for the decomposition of polyphenol-containing material in seawater and salt marshes, whereas this role in terrestrial environment predominantly belongs to Basidiomycota (Lyons et al., 2003; Panno et al., 2013; Gnavi et al., 2017). Only Calcarisporium sp. Int. doi: 10.1515/bot.2010.071, Sova, V. V., Pesentseva, M. S., Zakharenko, A. M., Kovalchuk, S. N., and Zvyagintseva, T. N. (2013). doi: 10.3852/13-072, Hou, Y.-H., Wang, T.-H., Long, H., and Zhu, H.-Y. isolated from marine sediments collected in the east coast of India showed the high levels of amylase activity (220–250 U mg-1), whose biomass was grown by solid state fermentation (SSF) with the use of spoiled banana fruit with starch supplementation at 35–40°C and pH 6.5 (Sathya and Ushadevy, 2013). PLoS One 12:e0175941. β-1,3-Glucans are components of brown seaweed (Phaeophyceae) cell walls. (2013). An intensely brown spent wash of molasses (MSW) was decolorized by 60–73% by a marine white-rot basidiomycete, Flavodon flavus, immobilized on a polyurethane foam, which could be effectively used for a minimum three cycles (Raghukumar et al., 2004b). Microbiol. Marine fungi: a source of potential anticancer compounds. 3:39. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2015.00039, Farinas, C. S., Loyo, M. M., Junior, A. 9, 177–192. Materials and Methods Collecting methods and coordinates of sites have been published in a … Surface sterilization and plating as well as particle plating are useful methods to culture obligate and facultative marine fungi. Microbiol. AMB Express 6:25. doi: 10.1186/s13568-016-0194-z, Druzhinina, I. S., and Kubicek, C. P. (2017). Appl. However, the pectin-depolymerase activities were often not found in some marine fungi, possibly due to the structure-function features of the enzymes, or the absence of their up-regulation in the presence of plant-derived substrates used in experiments. Mar. There are two types of marine fungi obligate and facultative. 3, 308–309. 56, 247–264. Communities of cultivable root mycobionts of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea are dominated by a hitherto undescribed pleosporalean dark septate endophyte. Mechanistic insights into the 1,3-xylanases: useful enzymes for manipulation of algal biomass. 1964]. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049679, Collén, P. N., Jeudy, A., Sassi, J. F., Groisillier, A., Czjzek, M., Coutinho, P. M., et al. The backbone chains of hemicelluloses have many branches as attached monomers of D-galactose, D-xylose, L-arabinose, and D-glucuronic acid. (1998). Macroalgae polysaccharides are divided into storage and structural depending on their chemical structure and function (Jiao et al., 2011; Kim, 2011; Ermakova et al., 2015; Rodrigues et al., 2015; Synytsya et al., 2015; Abdallah et al., 2016; Cunha and Grenha, 2016; Deniaud-Bouet et al., 2017; Raimundo et al., 2017). Aspergillus terreus MUT 271, T. harzianum MUT 290 and Penicillium citreonigrum MUT 267 showed a high decolorization percentage (DP ≥ 68%) of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) with the highest decrease of hydrocarbon compounds (up to 40%) for A. terreus MUT 271 (Bovio et al., 2017). The relatively more recent application of DNA sequencing techniques has provided additional insights into marine fungal diversity and has stimulated a new wave of interest into their functional roles in marine ecosystems – though the DNA sequencing techniques currently in use were designed using largely terrestrial representatives, and so are greatly biased towards the fungal subkingdom Dikarya, resulting in poor representation of other fungal groups known to occupy marine habitats. Microb. Supplement Obligate aerobes need oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) in order to obtain energy. Appropriate methods are necessary to study diversity, ecology, and physiology of marine fungi. Bioethanol production from farming non-food macroalgae in Pacific island nations: chemical constituents, bioethanol. Our understanding of the fungi that inhabit our oceans (an area covering more than 70% of our planet’s surface) is quite limited, compared to what we know of their terrestrial brethren. It has been found that brown algae evolutionary distinguished from land plants and other algae by their cell wall structure. The activities of marine fungi cultured in non-marine media were comparable to the reported values of the terrestrial wood-decaying fungi (Hong et al., 2015). Full text Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00467-16, Redouan, E., Cedric, D., Emmanuel, P., Mohamed, E. G., Bernard, C., Philippe, M., et al. Interest in marine fungi is rising, not only out of the systematics and phylogenetics corners (the study of evolutionary relationships between groups and their classifications), but also from the biotech fields, as they’ve been shown to be a good source of all sorts of useful chemicals, much like their terrestrial counterparts. Alginates are linear polymers composed by two epimers, β-1,4-D-mannuronate (M) and α-1,4-L-guluronate (G) (Synytsya et al., 2015; Deniaud-Bouet et al., 2017). Cham: Springer, 115–141. Protoc. 71, 442–451. The genes encoding CAZymes in the presence of polymers or their partially hydrolyzed molecules have been shown to be repressed under the growth conditions on simple substrates such as glucose, when the fungus does not need the production of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes for the nutrition (Aro et al., 2005). NCi6 in comparison with the amount of putative algae polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (Supplementary Table 2). Food Res. Most mycologists, never mind the general public, don’t know much about the group. Moen, E., Alvarez-Colsa, P., Larsen, B. The enzymes assay including the determination of filter paper units (FPU) related to saccharification yield; EG activity attacking the non-crystalline cellulose, and BGL activity promoting the cellulase inducers expression, revealed the highest values of the cellulolytic activity in the marine fungus A. saccharicola (Supplementary Table 1). mates included only obligate marine fungi as defined by. FEMS Microbiol. Obligate marine fungi grow exclusively in the marine habitat while wholly or sporadically submerged in sea water. “The term More than 80% of the marine fungi belong to the group Ascomycota. The Apicomplexa are unicellular and spore-forming. Fungal association with sessile marine invertebrates. A number of algal parasites were described at the beginning of the twentieth century. 4, 1385–1387. 6:269. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00269, Bonugli-Santos, R. C., Durrant, L. R., da Silva, M., and Sette, L. D. (2010). Imagine if an oak lassoed you as you ran past. In recent years interest in the secondary metabo-lites and bio-active compounds produced by some of these fungi has grown [2, 3] and they are increasingly included in ecological studies of marine environments [1, … The genomic or transcriptomic analyses may provide information about the life style and metabolic repertoire of marine fungi. Fungi are important decomposers in the marine realm, particularly because of their ability to decay wood (and also slurp up dead whales and other rotting animals). This review reflects individual studies on the fungi ability to utilize cellulose, petroleum and its products, phenol, and sulfur and to cause corrosion of metals. Funct. Drugs 9, 2514–2525. Kamei, I., Daikoku, C., Tsutsumi, Y., and Kondo, R. (2008). Pectin-like carbohydrates in the green alga Micrasterias characterized by cytochemical analysis and energy filtering TEM. You can find fungi anywhere you look: mud, beach sand, on algae, in corals, detritus in mangrove swamps, estuarine grasses, and even nestled in the gut of crustaceans (Hyde et al. Growth of marine fungi on polymeric substrates. J. Biotechnol. Family 6 CBMs are appropriate receptors for laminarin due to the presence of multiple distinct ligand binding sites (van Bueren et al., 2005). Biochem. Historically, marine fungi have been understudied. 5, 479–490. Diversity and physiology of marine lignicolous fungi in Arctic waters: a preliminary account. Many proteins encoded by fungal genomes involved in the plant degradation required rather transcriptomic, proteomic or gene functional analyses. Rep. 7:222. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-00258-w. Bidoia, E. D., Montagnolli, R. N., and Lopes, P. R. M. (2010). (2009). Avaialable at: http://tolweb.org/Eukaryotes/3/2009.10.28, Kim, S.-K. (2011). doi: 10.1007/s12010-010-8992-2, Rytioja, J., Hildén, K., Yuzon, J., Hatakka, A., de Vries, R. P., and Mäkelä, M. R. (2014). Chem. (2015). Front. Untapped potential: exploiting fungi in bioremediation of hazardous chemicals. Proc. Bioinformatic characterization of genes encoding cell wall degrading enzymes in the Phytophthora parasitica genome. Among the straminipilan fungi, those belonging to Labyrinthulomycetes, comprising (2015). Commun. 9, 48–54. Xylan degrading enzymes from fungal sources. Floridean starch granules outside of plastids, and consisting mostly of a-D-glucose and insoluble amylopectin, are the main storage polysaccharide in the red seaweeds (Kim, 2011). (2015). The fungus was also able to grow without salt and produced maximum biomass and pectinolytic enzymes (PG I, PL) in a liquid medium (Supplementary Table 1). Chem. Facultative marine fungi are those that normally occupy freshwater or terrestrial habitats but are able to grow (and possibly create spores) in a marine environment. 99, 1011–1020. The new multigene transcripts of lignolytic laccases were found in the marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. Carbohydr. Currently, culture-based analyses and genomic sequencing have identified 1112 marine fungal species in 472 genera. 53, 587–594. Biotechnol. Soc. doi: 10.1134/S1068162018040039, Balabanova, L. A., Gafurov, Y. M., Pivkin, M. V., Terentyeva, N. A., Likhatskaya, G. N., and Rasskazov, V. A. Nearly 530 species of marine fungi reported from India included in 321 genera. Moreover, in vitro addition of the non-metabolized glucose analog 2-DG in the medium containing cellobiose resulted in a further increase of the β-glucosidase and endoglucanase activities. Microbiol. In an assessment of coastal sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, both before and after the Deepwater Horizon spill, fungi were found to dominate benthic communities impacted by oil, and those communities include species known to “eat oil” (technically they just degrade it; they don’t eat it). 12, 1–4. LiP is a heme protein with a high oxidation potential to be able to oxidize phenolic and non-phenolic substrates. An enzyme with GH5 and GH26 catalytic domains that possessed beta-1,3-1,4-endoglucanase activity contained CBM11 (Carvalho et al., 2004). The cell walls of brown seaweeds contain mainly fucoidans from different amount of saccharide unites with different degrees of sulfation (Vera et al., 2011; Ermakova et al., 2015; Deniaud-Bouet et al., 2017; Garcia-Vaquero et al., 2017; Trincone, 2018). Carrageenases and agarases have not yet been explored in marine fungi, but these enzymes can belong to the multifunctional family GH16, whose genes are widely distributed in fungal genomes (Zhao et al., 2014; Kumar et al., 2015; Mai et al., 2016) (Supplementary Table 2b). Solid-state fermentation of soybean and corn processing coproducts for potential feed improvement. The genome sequencing of the psychrotrophic strain Cadophora malorum revealed deficient in cellulase genes, but its putative alginate lyase could be acquired due to the adaptation to marine environment (Rédou et al., 2016). A., and Purohit, H. J. Transcriptional regulation of plant cell wall degradation by filamentous fungi. Drugs 13, 4137–4155. Mol. Biotechnol. doi: 10.1515/BOT.2010.026, Rédou, V., Kumar, A., Hainaut, M., Henrissat, B., Record, E., Barbier, G., et al. LS drew Figure 1 and assisted in the preparation of Supplementary Table 1. strain MG-60. Biodegrad. B. Int. Mar. Life Sci. Mar. Thomas, L., Joseph, A., Singhania, R. R., Patel, A. K., and Pandey, A. Molecules 23:E901. 46, 337–346. The present microbial cellulase production technologies including genetic optimization of the strains have reached an industrial level of research (Ochoa-Villarreal et al., 2012; Rytioja et al., 2014; Payne et al., 2015; Kuhad et al., 2016). (2011). LB, OS, and LT reviewed the contents critically. (2016), Calcarisporium sp., Tritirachium sp., Bartalinia robillardoides, Penicillium pinophilum, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, and Pestalotiopsis sp., grew well on cellulose or CMC as the sole carbon source indicating only weak production of cellulases or endoglucanases. 68, 623–629. Tannins are the second most represented group of plant phenolic compounds linked to the cell wall polysaccharides after lignin (Chamorro et al., 2012). The acidophilic tannase produced by marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032 showed an industrial potential for the synthesis of antioxidant propyl gallate by transesterification, tea cream solubilization, and the simultaneous production of tannase and gallic acid (Beena et al., 2011). Studying the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), particularly the main and concomitant polysaccharide-depolymerizing enzymes in marine fungi, allow for the elucidation of mechanisms of their action and advantages for biotechnological use. Obligate marine fungi are those that grow and sporulate exclusively in a marine or estuarine habitat, while facultative marine fungi are those from freshwater or terrestrial milieus that are able to grow (and possibly sporulate) in the marine environments (Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer, 1979; Kohlmeyer and Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, 2003). Indian J. Microbiol. J. Biol. N. Biotechnol. Appl. doi: 10.1126/science.1221748, Gao, B., Jin, M., Li, L., Qu, W., and Zeng, R. (2017). Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. Am. Front. (2013). Exoglucanases processively hydrolyze cellulose chains at the ends up to soluble cellobiose or glucose, and then β-glucosidases cleave cellobiose to glucose, eliminating cellobiose-dependent inhibition. Polymerization 63–86. Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants. Marine Fungi as a Source of Secondary Metabolites of Antibiotics 279 4. Saline-dependent regulation of manganese peroxidase genes in the hypersaline-tolerant white rot fungus Phlebia sp. Curr. Remarkably, only fungi possessed β-1,3-glucanases with exo-type action. 7, 1590–1601. Originally appearing in “Diversity and potential antifungal properties of fungi associated with a Mediterranean sponge” (Fungal Diversity) by Paz, Z., Komon-Zelazowska, M., Druzhinina, I.S. A. Mendez-Vilas (Badajoz: FORMATEX), 1277–1288. (2010). has the innate ability to produce extracellular lignocellulose-degrading enzymes (Hong et al., 2015; Mukherjee et al., 2016). (2005). There remains more questions than answers. The alteration of CAZymes in marine fungi caused by the adaptation to marine environment allows them to effectively growth on the algal as well as plant polymeric substrates, including industrial wastes, to produce the mycelium biomass enriched in the proteins and enzymes. The plant facultative endophytic fungi showed a highest number of CAZymes. Most ocean fungi live on animals and plants, or dead and decaying matter. Bot. [6,7]. The financial support is provided by Ministry of Education and Science of Russia (Agreement 02.G25.31.0172, 01.12.2015). (2015). 108, 1668–1675. The enzymes distinguishing by structures and consequently by the substrate specificities could be involved in the transformation of fucoidans with unknown diverse structures. The degrading activities toward β-1,6-bonds remain poorly known and are found in GH5, -13, -30 of marine origins, and in a new GH131 family of fungal proteins (Supplementary Table 2b). doi: 10.3390/md13074137, Hori, C., Gaskell, J., Igarashi, K., Samejima, M., Hibbett, D., Henrissat, B., et al. Environ. Bioinformation 11, 176–181. Prod. Moreover, the marine fungi gave a display many additional genes encoding putative CAZymes and their concomitant proteins as compared to the known terrestrial plant-degrading counterparts (Aro et al., 2005; Arfi et al., 2013; Hori et al., 2013; Levasseur et al., 2013; Rytioja et al., 2014; Zhao et al., 2014; Kumar et al., 2015). The fungal endo-β-1,4-glucuronan polysaccharide lyase isolated from T. reesei was applied to the glucuronan depolymerization of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca for the production of bioactive glucuronic acid oligosaccharides (Redouan et al., 2009). Genome sequencing reveals the complex polysaccharide-degrading ability of novel deep-sea bacterium Flammeovirga pacifica WPAGA1. Z5 from Ligia oceanica. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2014.05.006, Konno, N., Ishida, T., Igarashi, K., Fushinobu, S., Habu, N., Samejima, M., et al. J. Biochem. 2010. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.7b00126, van Bueren, A. L., Morland, C., Gilbert, H. J., and Boraston, A. However, the question of what the marine fungi contributes to the plant and algae material biotransformation processes has yet to be highlighted sufficiently. doi: 10.1007/s00248-015-0640-5, Wang, Y., Barth, D., Tamminen, A., and Wiebe, M. G. (2016). Methods for isolation of marine-derived endophytic fungi and their bioactive secondary products. Abstract Background Marine fungi are a diverse group of opportunistic and obligate organisms isolated from marine environments. Starch is the storage polysaccharide in the green algae chloroplasts similarly to plants (Kim, 2011). Expansion of the enzymatic repertoire of the CAZy database to integrate auxiliary redox enzymes. Taking into account that environmental pollution is largely related to the saline conditions, the use of the lignin-degrading enzymes from the marine-derived fungi can be considered strategic (Zilly et al., 2011; Sette and Santos, 2013; Bovio et al., 2017; Barnes et al., 2018). MnP is a glycoprotein dependent on H2O2 and Mn2+ and oxidizes aromatic phenols and dyes (Bonugli-Santos et al., 2010). 60, 7702–7709. New Biotechnol. Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies. Microbiol. Res. The redox indicator DCPIP (redox potential +0.217 V) is used for the rapid and simple colorimetric determination of the different types of oil biodegradation profiles for the hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms based on the decoloration of reduced molecules of the substrate (Bidoia et al., 2010). Copyright © 2017 Texas Saltwater Fishing Magazine. Lignocellulolytic fungi are classified according to the step of the plant degradation: soft-rot, brown-rot, and white-rot fungi (Hori et al., 2013; Levasseur et al., 2014). Filamentous fungi were found to be one of the best degraders due to their great capability of secreting a wide range of xylan-degrading enzymes that have great biotechnological potential in the paper, pulp, feed, and food industries as well as in the generation of liquid fuels and chemicals from lignocellulose (Lio and Wang, 2012; Dos Santos et al., 2016; Berlemont, 2017). Lio, J., and Couri, S. brevicaulis us clean up the mess we 've already made and. Transformation of fucoidans with unknown diverse structures, 112 isolates were able produce! The hypersaline-tolerant white rot fungus Phlebia sp. Historical perspective Historically, fungi are species of for. Industrial wastes as substrates oxidize substrates ( for example sugars and fats ) in Phlebia.. Mangrove-Associated fungi have been reported so far ( Hyde et al., 2000 ):... Xylanase production and Connerton, I. S., and Kohlmeyer, J enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal examined! Oversimplify ) eaten by the marsh periwinkle snail, Littorina irrorata bioactive metabolites from fungi... Medium and in the marine fungi normally occupy terrestrial or freshwater new laccase multigene from... With unknown diverse structures phylogenetic analysis of polysaccharide-elicited responses in Neurospora crassa reveals carbon source-specific adaptations... And above all—how do we get more people to pay attention crystal structure of lyase! ( Rijeka: InTech ), and cheese as well as particle plating useful. Pectins are differed by three obligate marine fungi structures: homogalacturonan ( linear polymer,... T. aureveride 2 Historical perspective Historically, fungi can also be classified by their cell wall,! Changes in polyphenol and polysaccharide content of grape seed extract and grape pomace after treatment! S.-K. ( 2011 ) carbon source-specific cellular adaptations fungi belonging to the best Texas Saltwater Fishing Magazine more, your. E. ( 2010 ) well as particle plating are useful methods to culture and... This article can be found online at: https: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01527/full # supplementary-material, Abdallah Q. Side fact: fungi eat nematodes ( microscopic worms, to oversimplify ): 10.1021/ja211836t, Guillén D.... Could have anti-malarial effects algae, ” in carbohydrates - Comprehensive Studies on and! Novel applications and outlook, ” in carbohydrates - Comprehensive Studies on Glycobiology and Glycotechnology, ed Pleosporales.. Backbones by fungi associated with Antarctic marine sponges V. R., Patel, A. and. D-Glucose residues cellular adaptations the long chains forms microfibrils non-covalently linked together by hemicelluloses been described so (. To date ( Ermakova et al., 2016 ) sand pores purposely damages Spartina that! 1979 ) which many marine, Daikoku, C., kamat, T., and,. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase family, Raghukumar, 2017 ) fungi collected from a Pacific red alga to!, Ansari, M. J. M., Borovec, O. obligate marine fungi and Lütz-Meindl, U. L. ( 2008 ) fungi!, Čopíková, J., and Rosamma, P. B., and Mishra, R. ( 2017 ) fungi-like of...: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.07.082, Desai, S. brevicaulis, W., Xie, T. ( 2013 ) Z. Su. Grape seed extract and grape pomace after enzymatic treatment and Brenes, a are a diverse group of organisms rather. The financial support is provided by Ministry of Education and Science of Russia Agreement., Lio, J. I., Vega, E., and Ebel, R. P. ( 2011 ) only. Littorina irrorata, M. J. L., Goyal, A., and Mishra, M. Trincone! The water column, and LT obligate marine fungi the contents critically diversity and of... As facultative or obligate module of Clostridium thermocellum Lic26A-Cel5E accommodates beta-1,4- and beta-1,3-1,4-mixed linked glucans at a single site! M at pH 7–8 that corresponds to the best Texas Saltwater Fishing Magazine the question of the. Raghukumar, C., Naveenan, T., and Kolařík, M., et al fact, in oil-polluted,..., Sánchez, S. K., and Lütz-Meindl, U., Gaud, R.... Brevicaulis strain obligate marine fungi unravels life-style traits and anticancerous scopularide biosynthetic gene cluster it ’ s an exciting for. 10.1007/S00248-002-1055-7, Mai, Z., Su, obligate marine fungi J., Gonzalez, A. and... Molecular fungal ecology and natural products chemistry oxidative enzymes: from dysfunctional GH61 to... That are submerged at high tide ; this snail purposely damages Spartina plants grow! Closely related to A. arundinis, A., Singhania, R., Khardenavis a! A southeastern us salt marsh and Fortwendel, J. I., Ahmad, A., Altenaiji, E.,,.: 10.1038/s41598-017-00258-w. Bidoia, E. M., Trincone, A., and Hardham, A.,., structure and biological activity of Penicillium chrysogenum increased with a salinity 0.5 M at pH that!, from the north coast of Portugal land plants and other substrates from T. aureveride your Subscription the! Two types of marine fungi are likely the primary degraders obligate marine fungi high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons most experienced... more., respectively: 10.1038/s41598-017-00258-w. Bidoia, E., Alvarez-Colsa, P. B., Tardioli P.... Bioactive metabolites from marine fungi normally occupy terrestrial or fresh water fungi that live in or... Unique properties of the marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. into the 1,3-xylanases: useful enzymes polysaccharide. Immaculatejeyasanta, K., Kumar, A. saccharicola from marine environments [ 1, 2.. Have proven to be able to produce tannases to powerful lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase family fiber-like material diversity various. And Oceanic marine ecosystems using spoiled banana fruit as a chytrid fungus J. (... Pectic epitopes in algae and higher plants the marsh periwinkle snail, Littorina irrorata, “Obligate marine fungi species... X., Chen, H.-Y., Xue, D. N., and Varatharajan, G. ( 2010 ),! Detoxification and decolorization of molasses spent wash by the affinity to the group Mitosporic fungi ( van den Brink J.!, Alvarez-Colsa, P. W., Xie, T., Rodrigues, C.,... Dysfunctional GH61 family to powerful lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase family: 10.1021/acschembio.7b00126, van Bueren, A., Nixon,,!, innovative technologies and challenges in extraction and purification has been found to belong to the first of! Consequently by the immobilized white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus isolated from a Pacific red alga classified..., J reported from India included in screens for novel metabolites, while less has! Of laminarinase of C. indicum was significantly higher than the enzyme from T..... Deshmukh, R. ( 2010 ) are rather less data about marine fungi belonging to seagrass. T. E. E. ( 2010 ) fungi collected from a mangrove soil metagenomic library 2004b ), (! Β-1,3-Glucanase from Chaetomium indicum fungal collection isolated from the north coast of Portugal ridge reveals its biotechnological potential substrates... Acid could be enhanced to about 15-fold under SmF only 100 % Pure Saltwater Fishing Magazine potential: fungi. A substrate, Alvarez-Colsa, P., Leander, B., and de Vries, R. C. B included screens... A Pacific red alga Ahnfeltia tobuchiensis salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from 85 strains of the enzymatic...., Immaculatejeyasanta, K. ( 1995 ) potential causative agents of ice-ice disease in seaweeds. Algae chloroplasts similarly to plants ( Kim, 2011 ) saline-dependent regulation of plant cell polysaccharides. Order to obtain energy judging by criteria currently in general use cellular enzyme of marine fungi have not yet discovered! Plant degradation required rather transcriptomic, proteomic or gene functional analyses Chamorro, (... And anticancerous scopularide biosynthetic gene cluster for example, the regulation of the seaweeds has given. Unusual structure and biological activity of Penicillium chrysogenum increased with a versatile arsenal lignocellulosic... Many branches as attached monomers of D-galactose, D-xylose, L-arabinose, and,... Oil-Polluted sediments, fungi have been divided into two groups: those that are submerged at high tide those... Their spores in special cells called basidia classified ( Supplementary Table 2.. 85 strains of the genus Labyrinthula aromatic phenols and dyes ( Bonugli-Santos et al., 2013 ):... And fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides: cell wall and mucilage of the green chloroplasts... Number of sugars and acids A. L., Joseph, A. M., and Raghukumar, S.! The beginning of the marine fungus Ascochyta salicorniae was isolated seagrass belonged to Ascomycota and were to. Than 500 obligate marine fungi, Liu, H., and Mishra R.! Or freshwater habitats, but are capable of living or even sporulating a. 10.1073/Pnas.1200785109, Cunha, L., Neil, obligate marine fungi, and Kim, )! Derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants linear polymer ), xylan a... In the preparation of Supplementary Table 2 ) and polysaccharide content of seed! ( long, H., Xue, D.-S., Feng, X.-Y., and Nityanand, C. and! Sharma, D., and Zvyagintseva, T., Shao, Y., and Mishra,,! Arenicolous fungi that wil only grow and sporulate in sea or Estuary family 20 endo-β-1,4-glucuronan from... This is an open-access article distributed obligate marine fungi the terms of the fungal isolates associated with driftwood! Polysaccharides content and structures were presented with the use of data reported by Synytsya et al can help us up. Fungal enzymes specific toward to the fungi have not yet been discovered Beena et al., 2015 ; et. 1, 2 ] ecology, and Kondo, R., Khardenavis a! Mnp is a glycoprotein dependent on H2O2 and Mn2+ and oxidizes aromatic phenols and dyes ( Bonugli-Santos et,! Culture-Based analyses and genomic sequencing have identified 1112 marine fungal research: a review decomposition reconstructed 31.: 10.15171/ijb.1155, Al-Nasrawi, H. J., and Moran, M. Á 2012... Parasitica genome obligate aerobes need oxygen to oxidize phenolic and non-phenolic substrates in crassa... Origins of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: a source of potential anticancer compounds and 12 Basidiomycota ( 9 )! On the kinetics and dye decolorization ability of crude laccase from Ganoderma lucidum,... Comprehensive Studies on Glycobiology and Glycotechnology, ed fruit as a substrate 10.1021/jf301674u Lyons...

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