dioscorea bulbifera morphology

andD. They also contain the poisonous alkaloid dioscorine, and therefore may be eaten only when boiled or roasted. Dioscorea hofika Jum. These are edible and potato like in flavor. 1753.. Tubérculos hipogeos y esféricos, 20 30 cm de diámetro, corteza café clara a amarillenta, lisa; bulbilos esféricos, 1 10 cm de diámetro; tallos levovolubles. Yams consist of more than 600 It is suggested that there are two cotyledons in Dioscorea bulbifera L., D. praehensilis Benth., D. odoratissima Pax., D. hirtiflora Benth., D. preussii Pax., one of which remains in the seed as an absorptive organ. Dougall (1979) showed that the yield of diosgenin found in cell culture of D. deltoidea (26mg/g_1 dry wt) was higher than those found in whole plants (20mg/g_1 dry wt). Folia Geobot. Organs of an individual plant living under stress undergo adaptive changes which determine their more effective function[43]. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Family: Dioscoreaceae) commonly known as ‘air potato’ is an important edible medicinal plant use to treat a wide range of diseases. Morpho-anatomical, biochemical and molecular parameters have also been used to monitor integrity and stability of in vitro grown plants[9]. bulbifera L.,D. Stem-Twining to the left, unarmed, often with bulbils in the leaf-axils. andD. Earlier workers reported shoot regeneration of 42%-75% in Dioscorea rotundata when cultured in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1 µmol/L)+BAP (0.20 µmol/L) and shoot plantlet regeneration of 60%-82% obtained in media made of NAA (0.05 µmol/L)+BAP (0.20 µmol/L) or BAP (0.46 µmol/L)+kinetin (0.50 µmol/L) in Dioscorea alata[29]. Essiett UA, Bala DN, Agbakahi JA. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. One should consider the fact that abundant information on diosgenin production in tissue culture on the one hand and rapid development of the biotechnology of the plants on the other, would probably require the application of mathematical programming. Preparation of epidermal imprints of living plant organs by the use of non toxic mucilage and latex. Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato): This true yam also produces axillary tubers but these can sometimes weigh several pounds. Comparison of growth responses to auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid and the ethylene precussor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in maize seedling root. Estudio etnobotánico de la papa de aire Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. Dioscorea bulbifera L. Accepted Name Air potato Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Dioscoreales > Dioscoreaceae > Dioscorea > Dioscorea bulbifera L. La papa del aire (Dioscorea bulbífera), es una especie de ñame cierto en el Dioscoreaceae o verdadera familia yam. He analyzed the Japanese Dioscorea species, three of which did not contain sapogenins. 2014 Mar; 4(3): 176–183. flower of D. bulbifera is a distinctive feature of this taxon. 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. Air potato is an aggressive, herbaceous vine that can attain lengths of 65 feet in a single growing season. We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The leaves are shiny green, alternate with a long petiole. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated, China Humanity Technology Publishing House, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Plant has two types of storage organs. Wild plant had thicker lignified walls than the micropropagated plant and mass of mucilages were evenly spread in the epidermal cell of the wild but condensed and scattered in the in vitro propagated plant (Figures 7 and ​and88). (D. bulbifera) belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae assigned to the order Dioscorales.It is commonly called air potato, air yam or bulbil-bearing yam. Alarcón MV, Lloret PG, Iglesias DJ, Talón M, Salguero J. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. It is widely cultivated and has become naturalized in many regions (Latin America, the West Indies, the Southeastern United States, and various oceanic islands). Importance of leaf epidermal characters in the Asteraceae family. The near endangered status of D. bulbifera makes it imperative to find appropriate means of its conservation. Responses of nodal segments of D. bulbifera in MS media supplemented with BAP (1.5 mg/L) and NAA (0.3 mg/L) were poor as 20% of growth was recorded with no shoot elongation and root formation after culturing for more than 6 weeks (Figure 3B). Post‐Graduate Programe in Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, , 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. hirtiflora Benth.,D. Akahori (1965) found an interesting correlation between morphological features and sapogenin content. Growth of plant was assessed 4-6 weeks. Plant has two types of … (1969) found that D. floribunda leaf homogenate converted the open-chain glycoside of diosgenin to dioscin. Generally, mean length of stomata size, epidermal cell size and trichomes of the abaxial and adaxial surfaces in wild plant were larger than micropropagated D. bulbifera while the average epidermal trichome in abaxial surface was larger compared with the wild. Vegetatively, D. bulbifera is cultivated by planting the whole bulbils, but it is not grown much commercially because of the unpalatable bitter taste[4]. Mr. O. The tubers are edible and have often been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic medicine to treat … Dioscorea burkilliana J. Miège. D bulbifera al 10%, 13% y 16% p/v. Numerous studies which have been carried out on Dioscorea species in laboratories interested in medicinal plants prompted the question as how to obtain diosgenin without cultivation of the plants in the field or how to regenerate them to provide a large number of plants. Ajayi GO, Kadiri AB, Egbedi ME, Oyeyemi OO. It comprises ca. This paper adds new data on the pollen and orbicule morphology of 61 Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae) species to the survey of Schols et al. Key words: Dioscorea , chromosome number, raphide morphology, genotypes. The paper also provided information on the best conditions for obtaining a high level of genetic materials for the conservation of the plant. Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Healthy nodal segments from the green house and underground bulbil grown indoor. En los años 50 del pasado siglo se estudió en Veracruz, México, una variedad de Dioscorea que se usaba como saponina o jabón para matar peces por la compañía Sintex. vera Prain & Burkill Dioscorea crispata Roxb. Flowers are dioecious and seeds often winged. (2001) which includes an overview of previous work. Species mis-identification of herbal drugs due to numerous local names given to the same species or several species of crude drug with the same local name is common in Africa[16]. MORPHOLOGY OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L.21 Habit- A large glabrous climber growing 70 feet or more in length. From the pharmaceutical point of view, the most important has been the finding that diosgenin production in tissue culture can be at least as high as in intact plants. Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of, Yasmiri G, Khan MA, Shaheen N, Hayat MQ. Morphological, anatomical and phytochemical investigations are the integral part of herbal science. The use of medicinal plants by nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries is gaining more attention around the globe. Production of plantlets with profuse rooting in vitro is important for successful establishment of regenerated plants in soil[28]. INTRODUCTION Tropical root and tuber crops are a subsidiary staple to over 20% of the world’s population occupying an important position after cereals and grain legumes (Orkwor et al., 1998). Ninety-five percent of Dioscoreaceae species belong to the genus Dioscorea, commonly known as yam (77). Ivanova T, Gussev C, Bosseva Y, Stoeva T. Soares JD, Pasqual M, De Araujo AG, De Castro EM, Pereira FJ, Braga FT. It is named by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides Observations on floral morphology of eight species ofDioscorea L., namely,D. Dhawan et al. At the moment, in vitro technique has found increasing significance as a complementary means to in situ plant conservation, especially for vegetatively propagated and recalcitrant seed-producing species[7]. 7 GUPTA D, SINGH J, 1989 Hydroxy-acetophenone derivatives from Dioscorea bulbifera. Diosgenin content in Dioscorea roots is 4% to 6% of dry weight. Conflict of interest statement: We declare that we have no conflict of interest. Dioscorea bulbifera var. Saheed SA, Illoh HC. Some Dioscorea species play an important role in pharmacy. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. The term, however, should not be confused with the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (Convolvulaceae), which is also known as yam in the USA. 9 RAGHUNADAN K, JOLLY C, 1987 Starch from Dioscorea bulbifera. Dioscorea bulbifera (scientific name: Dioscorea bulbifera L., also known as air potato, air yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam, Chinese Pinyin: Huang Yao Zi, Simplified Chinese: 黄药子, 黄独, 木药子, 大苦, 赤药, 红药子), is a species of perennial vine in genus Dioscorea … The surface-decontaminated explants were trimmed on the edges and cut to the required length (1.0-1.5 cm) before vertically in Murashige Skoog (MS) medium-filled culture tubes (one explant per tube)[24]. The plant was identified by Mr. O. Healthy nodal segments (12 weeks old) obtained from the green house and underground bulbil grown indoor (Figure 1A and ​and1B)1B) were disinfected using a drop of Tween 20 in distilled water in a sterilized bottle with constant shaking for 3 min. Abstract. Among the 600 species of the genus Dioscorea, Dioscorea bulbifera has profound therapeutic applications due to its unique phytochemistry. Foliar microscopic features of adaxial epidermis of D. bulbifera. Many species of Dioscorea are native to the Old World tropics and warm-temperature regions, some to tropical America. Dioscorea bulbifera (Papa aérea): información. Through the acute toxicity of various extracts including the EtOAc fraction (EF) and the non-EtOAc fraction (Non-EF) from ethanol, and the ethanol itself, we found that the EF contains the toxic ingredients of D. bulbifera rhizome. Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Many results suggest that the high diosgenin content can be obtained by biotransformation, and this method should be developed in the future. Multiple shoots from subcultured nodal segments. The stems range from thin (1-milli- In the present review its habit, habitat, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological properties are discussed. Information is also included on related species occurring in Florida, including invasive winged yam, D. alata. Dioscorea bulbifera is a potent medicinal plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine owing to its rich phytochemical diversity. The effects of Yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) intake on small intestine morphology in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats Louise da S. Asht Experimental Nutrition Laboratory, College of Nutrition, Federal Fluminense University, Rua Mário Santos Braga, 30, Niterói, RJ, 24020‐140 Brazil In Europe D. caucasica and D. pyrenaica are found. Citation: DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA Linnaeus, Sp. are presented. According to Kaul and Staba (1968), diosgenin is obtained commercially, principally from the tubers of D. composita, D. floribunda, D. tepinapensis, D. prazeri, D. deltoidea, D. sylvatica and D. belizensis. Effect of plant growth regulator on. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Dioscorea heterophylla Roxb. Umeshkumar MD, Vilas ND, Diniesh MS. Natural gums and mucilage's in NDDS: applications and recent approaches. Data are expressed as minimum, mean± SEM, and maximum, n=10. Selections from the book: “Medicinal and Aromatic Plants II”, 1989. At the beginning of the growing season, tubers and new bulbils produce thick sphagetti-like root from the rhizomatous head. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving. SRG/FP/2010/4A). Better diosgenin production may also be achieved by addition of mycelia of some fungal species to the culture, a technique that seems be very promising. Dioscoreaceae, the Yam Family. Dioscorea bulbifera is a potent medicinal plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine owing to its rich phytochemical diversity. Maintaining the genetic identity of donor plant and a completely viable acclimatized plant yield after in vitro storage are the essential prerequisites for using in vitro culture techniques for ex-situ conservation purpose. Joly et al. Methods Circular No. Climate Top of page. There is a dearth of published research on its invasive biological attributes including vine growth and biomass production by plants generated from bulbils. Anomocytic stomata type reported in this work agrees with a previous report of anomocytic stomata in the order Dioscorales as in the case of Dioscorea hispida[40]. Post‐Graduate Programe in Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, , 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Frequent in hedges. Adaptive responses to progressive drought stress in two poplar species originating from different attitude. The techniques utilized in this study were in accordance with methodology previously reported in literature[25]–[27]. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); February 9, 2015 Other authors found traces of diosgenin in D. bulbifera. A. Osiyemi is gratefully acknowledged for plant identification. Adedeji O, Jewoola OA. ex De Wild. Rose leaf structure in relation to different stages of micropropagation. Thus, the D. bulbifera plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryogenic tissues were genetically stable at the molecular, biochemical and morphological levels. A: Multiple root formation with single elongated shoot; B: Bud break with single leaf (no shoot and root formation). Just like every yam plant, D. bulbifera possesses an annual vegetative cycle. Mucilages are evenly and widely spread within the epidermal cell of the wild plant than the micropropagated plant. 1753. The storage protein of the aerial tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera was purified and its physicochemical, enzymatic and molecular properties determined with a view to comparing its functionality and genetic relatedness with other storage proteins. Fresh leaves of wild and in vitro cultivated plant of D. bulbifera cut in the standard median position and then soaked in concentrated nitric acid for 3-5 h in a covered Petri dish were used for epidermal study. Other Chinese species, D. althaeoides, D. colettii and D. septemloba, were the object of studies by Lou and Chen (1983) and Liu and Chen (1984), in which they isolated and identified diosgenin. (C,D) Starch granules of Dioscorea bulbifera tuber (AusMus 1/271; Vanuatu). The plants are usually climbers, with tubers or rhizomes at the base. However, the clinical application has been limited for its hepatotoxicity. Antitumour activity of, Mbiantcha M, Kamanyi AR, Teponno AL, Tapondjou B, Watcho P, Nguelefack T. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of extracts from the bulbils of, Kuete V, Betrandteponno R, Mbaveng AT, Tapondoju LA, Meyer JJ, Barboni L, et al. Keragaman uwi-uwian tersebut terlihat pada arah lilitan batang (searah jarum jam ... Diversity and characteristic morphology of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In Southwest Nigeria, D. bulbifera grows under the shade that contains a substrate composed of high levels of organic material and often over the tops of low-lying vegetation and into tree canopies. Consequently, the plants are destroyed and are not eaten. The presence of mass of mucilage within the epidermal cell and the presence of glandular unicellular trichomes with multicellular head are indicative of the medicinal lodgments of bioactive principles in the plant and in a way may justify its use in traditional medicine[33]. A: Nodal segments from green house with elongated shoot and leaves; B: Nodal segments from underground bulbil with elongated shoots and root proliferation. plate facing p. 217. Microscopic evaluation is an indispensable tool for identification of medicinal herbs and is one of the essential parameter in modern monograph. 73 Grafica 19 Concentración de alcohol para D. bulbifera al 10%, 13%, y 16% 74 Grafica 20 Concentración de alcohol para D. trífida al 10%, 13%, y 16% 75 MS medium was used as the basal medium for shoot and root proliferation. Phytochemistry 28(3):947-949. A comprehensive approach to identifying and authenticating botanical products. Leaf anatomy of orchids micrpropagated with different silicon concentrations. Dioscorea bulbifera var. It is a vigorous climber plant native of West Africa predominantly found in forest gaps and forest edges[1]. Dioscorea cayenensis has anisocytic stomata, with a percent-age frequency value of 100. The aerial bulbil serves as the main storage organ rather than underground tubers or bulbils[3]. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features The steroidal sapogenins, mostly diosgenin, present in the tubers and roots are one of the most valuable commercial sources for synthesis of corticosteroidal drugs (cortisone) and sexual hormones such as progesteron. In conclusion, the diagnostic features reported in the wild and micropropagated plants could serve as a basis for proper identification and authentication of D. bulbifera. Off The studies of Dioscorea were at first prompted by economic reasons, mostly for the species used as food. They concluded, based on this limited sample, that pollen morphological characters provided useful systematic data within the genus. As with many species within the genus Dioscorea, D. bulbifera does not support its own weight to any great height and in order to capture sunlight, this species has evolved to climb by twining on other plants (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2008). Dioscorea bulbifera wikipedia center for aquatic and invasive plants university of florida ifas {dioscoreaceae} air potato images useful tropical. Smillie TJ, Khan IA. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. La Dioscorea bulbifera, o “Patata aérea”, es una planta trepadora originaria de las zonas tropicales de Asia y África que pertenece a la familia Dioscoreaceae. Naphthalene acetic acid had been reported to inhibit root elongation in a wide range of concentrations from 0.01 µmol/L to 1 µmol/L[32]. hirtiflora Benth.,D. Dioscorea bulbifera L., Sp. minutiflora Engl.,D. Coursey (1967) mentioned 53 Dioscorea species containing sapogenin, and a high percentage of diosgenin content (more than 2%) was found in 23 species ineluding D. composita, D. deltoidea and D. floribunda. The techniques utilized in this study were in accordance with methodology previously reported in literature (Saheed and Illoh, 2010; Smillie and Khan, 2010; Santos et al., 2008). The epidermal peel was rinsed (5×) to remove concentrated nitric acid and thereafter cleared with soft Carmel hair brush to dissociate tissue remains from the surfaces. Table Diosgenin content in selected Dioscorea species. It is well known that most histological traits of plant are under the control of environmental conditions. It is therefore imperative to consider conserving this medicinally useful plant genetic resource. Characterization and maintenance of yam (Dioscorea spp.) Micro morphological characters are indispensable in the identification and authentication of medicinal plants samples. Comparative qualitative and quantitative features of foliar epidermis of wild and micropropagated D. bulbifera are presented in Table 3. In dry tuber incubation endogenous enzymes are destroyed. Mubo A. Sonibare and Adedapo A. Adeniran. In water saturated flask atmosphere such as the one presented in tissue culture experiments, the accumulation of specific gases (ethylene) in the confined atmosphere causes a dramatic increase in the transpiration rate leading to the failure of stomata to close[46]. MORPHOLOGY OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L.21 Habit- A large glabrous climber growing 70 feet or more in length. Dioscorea bulbifera is also called Air potato it belongs to yam species. Johansson M, Kronestedt-Robards EC, Robards AW. Dioscorea bulbifera es una planta trepadora que puede alcanzar hasta seis metros o más en longitud. This study combined taxonomic skill with tissue culture. The yield of diosgenin in various species of Dioscorea is presented in Table Diosgenin content in selected Dioscorea species. 8 IRELAND C, SCHWABE W, GOURSEY D, 1981 The occurrence of batatasins in the Dioscoreaceae. It contains detailed information on Dioscorea bulbifera, one of the most common and widespread yams of the tropics, which is known as air-potato yam because of its edible aerial tubers. Rhizoma Dioscorea bulbifera, the tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera L., has been used to treat various diseases. * Corresponding author.E-mail: anniosuagwu@mail.com. This is a good paper elucidating the importance of micro characters in the confirmation of the identity of both micro propagated and wild samples of D. bulbifera. Similarly, the foliar epidermal anatomy of Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea cayenensis, Dioscorea dumetorum, and Dioscorea alata was reported to consist of anomocytic stomata only for the four species of Dioscorea studied[41]. Shah GL, Gopal BV. In Dioscorea hispida, BAP (2.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.50 mg/L) with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L, elicited optimal response in shoot in which an average of (6.00±0.18) shootlets with a mean shoot length of (5.00±0.28) cm per explant was recorded[30]. The main determinant factors are high relative air humidity, air composition and culture media content. NPs synthesis was completed within 5 h showing a prominent peak at 540 nm. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. bulbifera L.,D. A. Osiyemi at the Forest Herbarium Ibadan where the voucher specimen with number “FHI 109529” was deposited. The purified protein had molecular weight of 21 kDa. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of, Bejoy M, Dan M, Anish NP, Anjana RG, Nair BJ, Radhika K, et al. : 33: 201-205. already built in. Nodal segments of D. bulbifera with elongated shoots. 1698. minutiflora Engl.,D. Generally, parameters of growth, such as number of leaves, mean multiple shoots and mean length showed optimal and better growth response in nodal segments obtained from underground bulbils (100% free of contamination) compared with nodal segments obtained from the green house (70% free of contamination) (Table 2). Pl. Johansson et al. They were rinsed in distilled water until explants were clean and free from Tween 20. Thus, the D. bulbifera plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryogenic tissues were genetically stable at the molecular, biochemical and morphological levels. More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. Slight variations included closed stomata pore in the wild and open in the in vitro cultivated plants, cuticularization of epidermal walls was observed in the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the wild whereas it was noticed only on the abaxial surfaces of the in vitro plant. Micromorphological investigation of foliar anatomy of genera, Abere TA, Onwukaeme DN, Eboka CJ. Copyright © 2020 | First Mag designed by Themes4WP. Diaz MS, Palacio L, Figueroa AC, Goleniwski ME. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Following dormancy break of the bulbils (after 16 weeks), they were dipped into black polythene bags with holes, filled with top soil and kept in the green house to minimize microbial contamination of plants. The observation of whitish callus at the nodal base of D. bulbifera with resultant effect in suppression of shoot growth may be attributed to the presence of NAA at 1.0 mg/L in the MS media. After 3-6 weeks of culturing, cultures were subcultured in fresh basal medium depending on the experiments. Clockwise twinning direction was reported in D. bulbifera and measures up to 12 m[2]. Most farmers regard the plant as weed competing with their farm products and clear them from the farm. By using these modern and very accurate methods, it will be possible to apply plant cell cultures to commercial diosgenin production. et al. One of the first plants to be investigated there were D. mexicana, D. floribunda and D. composita. Dioscorea bulbifera, also known as air potato, has been cultivated as food crop mainly in tropical countries in Asia and Australia. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Family: Dioscoreaceae) commonly known as ‘air potato’ is an important edible medicinal plant use to treat a wide range of diseases. Observations on floral morphology of eight species ofDioscorea L., namely,D. New sources for important sapogenins have been indicated. In the 1970’s, Pal and Sharma (1979) induced mutations by X-irradiation in D. bulbifera and D. alata with subsequent changes of steroidal sapogenin and alkaloid content in the species. *N1: 12 weeks old nodal segment of D. bulbifera obtained from green house; **N2: 12 weeks old nodal segment obtained from underground bulbils of D. bulbifera following dormancy break. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. However, we can only conserve what we know hence the need to be sure that what is propagated in vitro is the same plant in the wild. available on Dioscorea bulbifera and its management in Florida. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. et al. (D. bulbifera) belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae assigned to the order Dioscorales. According to Fowler (1984), the steroids derived from diosgenin are among the ten most often prescribed medicines of plant origin. It... Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. Behera KK, Sahoo S, Prusti AB. INTRODUCTION. Callus, shoot, leaf and root formation from nodal segments of D. bulbifera (parameters of growth scored after 6 weeks). The species have been the object of numerous studies by botanists, chemists and pharmacists. Indian J Pharm Sci 49(6):233-236. The consumption of steroid drugs increases every year. These have been employed in this paper to confirm the identity of the wild and micro propagated samples of D. bulbifera. (2001). (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Comparative growth of micropropagated plantlets and seedlings of citrus varieties. It comprises ca. Pharmacognistic study of two medicinal species of. A taxonomic study of some species in. Climate Status Dioscorea bulbifera granules were observed to have two different morphologies. This supports the thin cell wall observed in the micropropagated plant in this study and may explain the slight variation of anatomical features in the foliar epidermis when compared with the wild. The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatotoxicity induced by D. bulbifera in mice. PMID: 12819828 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: Yams: An account on the nature, origin, cultivation and utilization of the useful members of Dioscoreaceae. Diosgenin was first isolated by Tsukamoto and Ueno (1936) from the Japanese species D. tokoro with a yield of 1%. Thereafter, they were soaked in 70% alcohol for 10 min and finally treated with 3% sodium hypochloride for 15 min and then rinsed thoroughly by intermittent shaking with sterilized distilled water (3×). Study of the hepatotoxicity induced by, Gao H, Wu L, Kuroyanagi M. Seven compounds from, Wang JM, Ji LL, Branford-White CJ, Wang ZY, Shen KK, Liu H, et al. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces were carefully mounted on a clean glass slides and dehydrated by graded series 50%, 70%, 80% and 100% ethyl alcohol and later stained with safaranin O for 2 min; excess stain was removed by adding few drops of 70% ethyl alcohol. Dioscorea bulbifera is a vigorously twining, long-stemmed perennial vine with non-spiny stems to 20 m or more in length, freely branching above; internodes round or slightly angled in cross section and they twine counter-clockwise. Dioscorea bulbifera is an evergreen Perennial Climber growing to 10 m (32ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a fast rate. The basal medium was fortified with cysteine (20 mg/L), combination of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (0.0-1.5 mg/L) and 6-benzylamino purine (BAP) (0.0-1.0 mg/L), NAA (2.0 mg/L) and NAA [2.0 mg/L+BAP (0.5 mg/L)]. Originaria de las zonas tropicales de Asia y África.Es una especie invasora en muchas áreas tropicales, incluyendo La Florida en los Estados Unidos.. Características. Anatomical study, petiole, leaf, tuber, root and flower of, Aina OD, Atumeyi S. Foliar epidermal anatomy of four species of. Studies have verified that D. bulbifera is effective in treating a wide range of diseases, such as pharyngitis, goitre, pyogenic skin infections, orchitis and cancer. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Chinese: Huangdu, common name: air potato) is a traditional herbal medicine in China, and it is also one of the most widely consumed yam species, especially in West Africa. Cuticular striated wall has been reported in the epidermal imprint of the lower surface of the leaf of D. bulbifera using non-toxic mucilage[42]. Pl. The tubers are given the name yams. and Thespia populnea Linn.[38],[39]. are presented.The most remarkable distinctive features of the taxa studied are: the presence of large fruits and raceme inflorescences inD. The mean±SE, minimum and maximum values were calculated for all variables. In the present study, MS medium+BAP (0.05 mg/L)+NAA (0.01 mg/L) produced the highest mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm with an elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm (Figure 2A, Table 1) representing 70% explants response after 8 weeks of culturing. 1033. preussii Pax,D. Dioscorea caillei A. Chev. Subculturing of nodal segments of D. bulbifera obtained from Figure 3A and ​and3B3B after 6 weeks of growth in the same media resulted in formation of multiple shoots, 3.60±0.87 [mean length (49.20±5.71) mm] within 6 weeks of culturing, which was higher compared to multiple shoots, 2.40±0.40 [mean length of (33.60±7.48) mm] (Table 2) obtained from excised nodal segments from green house (Figure 4A and ​and4B4B). It is named by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides The root tubers are usually absent or insignificant. Photomicrograph (Ziess standard 25) of the epidermises was obtained using Motic camera mounted on a compound light microscope and attached to a Pentium IV computer. A combination of different diagnostic features (quantitative and microscopic parameters such as stomata and trichome types with sizes, shapes and sizes of epidermal cell, thickness of cell and cell inclusions) has been used for taxonomic distinction and recognition in the angiosperm family[11]–[15]. Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria., Tel: +23408023255482, E-mail: *Corresponding author: Dr. Mubo A. Sonibare, Senior Lecturer, PhD, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. V. Biology of Dioscorea bulbifera ... Taxonomy and morphology The genus Dioscorea, published in 1753 by Linnaeus (Genera Plantarum), was named after the Greek physician Pedinios Dioscorides, who was a medical officer in the Roman army at the time NAA, an auxin, can effectively induce shoot emergence when combined with an adenine derivative (BAP). In all media treatments, 10%-30% callus was generated (Figure 6A). dumetorum (Kunth) Pax,D. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. The plant forms bulbils in the leaf axils of the twining stems, and tubers beneath the ground. 1753.. Tubérculos hipogeos y esféricos, 20 30 cm de diámetro, corteza café clara a amarillenta, lisa; bulbilos esféricos, 1 10 cm de diámetro; tallos levovolubles. Multiple root formation with single elongated shoot and no shoot and root formation. Herbalist 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. Subcultured nodal segments from N1 and N2 in same media composition (parameters of growth scored after 6 weeks). The plant had been reported to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties as well as used for diseases such as leprosy, tumours, piles, dysentery, syphilis and ulcers[21]–[23]. It is important to note that using tissue culture technique the problem of freeing the yams from virus diseases can also be solved. Sarma (1980) studied the influence of diosgenin, isolated from D. prazeri, on chromosomes of Allium cepa. Healthy vines with active buds were collected from 12 weeks old plants of D. bulbifera raised and maintained in the green house. Pl. Biochemical investigations of D. floribunda following gamma irradiations were studied by Gupta et al. 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. ... Morphology D. bulbifera is a glabrous vine that climbs by twining to heights of 12 meters or more (fig. Wadekar J, Sawant R, Honde B. Anthelmintic and antibacterial potential of, Venkata AS, Sai KD. This is why the viscoamylography and the morphology of native starch from yam congo were studied. Dioscorea dumetorum has tetracytic and paractytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 91.05 and 8.95, respectively. La Dioscorea bulbifera que crece de forma silvestre puede ser tóxica, En cuanto a su valor medicinal, en algunos países la Dioscorea bulbífera es cultivada para satisfacer la demanda de la industria farmacéutica, porque contienen el esteroide llamado diosgenina, principal componente de … Comparison of mean of parameters of growth using independent student t-test for each column showed no statistical significance at P>0.05. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. Another kind of chemical investigation of Dioscorea species is the biotrans-formation of steroidal saponins. Dioscorea hoffa Cordem. Morphology and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived plantlets. Other authors have described the biological properties of diosgenin. The useful diagnostic features included amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic and anisocytic stomata and smooth epidermal wall as shown in Figures 7 and ​and88. morphology of the rhizomes and tubers of five different species of Dioscorea, namely D. balcanica, D. bulbifera, D. polystachya, D. rotundata and D. villosa. germplasm. Herein, we report the rapid synthesis of novel nanoparticles by D. bulbifera tuber extract (DBTE). The variation in the floral morphology seen in the flowers, fruits, seeds and floral formulae of the investigated Dioscorea species, … Morphology and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived plantlets. Also, mucilages have been reported in the epidermis of senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile), Alexandrian senna (Cassia augustifolia Vahl), Cassia auriculata Linn. Santos L, Thadeo LD, Larema L, Alves RM, Ferreira FA. A potential plasmid-curing agent, 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, from. Hegnauer (1963) mentioned many Dioscorea species containing diosgenin, but as is known from other authors, only certain Dioscorea have so far been found to contain sufficient diosgenin of economic importance. Kevers C, Franck T, Strasser RJ, Dommes J, Gaspar T. Hyperhydricity of micropropagated shoots; a typically stress-induced change of physiological state. (1977) found that D. bulbifera has diuretic and anti-inflammatory activity. Shoot and root proliferation were scored and measured after 6 weeks of culturing. Comparative qualitative and quantitative features of foliar epidermis of wild and micropropagated D. bulbifera. A combination of these features had been found useful for taxonomic distinction and recognition in angiosperm families. The primary fea-tures that can help in distinguishing the species include the nature of periderm, presence or absence of pericyclic Bitter Compounds in Tubers of Dioscorea bulbifera L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 22(2): 332-334. Later, Marker et al. 1). : Aerial yam, Genetic diversity, Morphology, Cluster analyses. Origen. In vitro bulbil induction in this study agrees with a previous study in which incorporation of BAP (2.0 mg/L) in MS medium resulted in the formation of a single oval bulbil from the lowest node of D. bulbifera[31]. The use of micropropagation techniques for endangered plant genetic resources conservation was recognized late in the 70s[6]. MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/mL)+cysteine (20 mg/L) cysteine showed significant response of nodal segments of D. bulbifera with more than 80% growth response in which bud break was achieved within 2 weeks (Figure 3A and ​and3B).3B). Similarly, explants with single node were excised from underground bulbil (12 weeks old) sprouting after dormancy break but kept indoor away from light source (the sun). Mucilages are generally normal products of metabolism formed within the cell (intracellular formation) and or produced without injury to the plant[34]. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Yam (Dioscorea bulbífera) Starch: Effect on Morphology and Functional Properties Cristiany Oliveira Bernardo. This may be caused by conversion of endogenous precursors by the enzymes liberated during tuber homogenization. Glycerin was used as mountant, and epidermises were covered with coverslips and the edges of the slide sealed with nail varnish to prevent dehydration. To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Values are expressed as mean±SEM; 10 replicates per treatment. Futhermore, the continuing cell enlargement retards the development of secondary walls (lignification and cutinization) resulting in thinner cell wall, reduced deposition of epicuticular waxes and poor mechanical tissue formation[44]. Therefore, in the case of shifting from in vitro to ex vitro cultures, the cutine is gradually synthesized, with the decrease relative humidity of the medium in which the plant lives. Dioscorea bulbifera is also called Air potato it belongs to yam species. A: Eight weeks old callus from nodal explants of D. bulbifera; B: Profuse whitish callus with shoot suppression. D. bulbifera, besides being important as an edible yam, is used in traditional medicine[17]. Dioscorea bulbifera L. is a medicinal plant. It is possible that the combination of BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.20 mg/L)1+cysteine (20 mg/L) in this study was responsible for shoot regeneration as control without these plant growth regulators failed to grow after observation in culture medium for more than 6 weeks. Micropropagation of an Indian ginger (. You may notice problems with Dioscorea bulbifera (comúnmente conocido como la patata aire, ñame aire, ñame aérea, ñame amargo, ñame descarado, ñame papa y ñame chirivía) es una especie de la verdadera ñame en el ñame familia, Dioscoreaceae.Es originaria de África, Asia y el norte de Australia. This work was financially supported by University of Ibadan Senate Research Grant (Grant No. In vitro culture explants are exposed to specific artificial conditions which differ from those in the natural environment. Sautour M, Mitaine-Offer A, Lacaille-Dubois M. The Dioscorea genus: a review of bioactive steroid saponins. Food tuber yams include D. alata, D. bulbifera, D. rotundata, D. cayenensis, D. esculenta and D. trifida. In spite of the great medicinal application of D. bulbifera, preference is largely given by local people to the flavor of other yam species. Herein, we report the rapid synthesis of novel Au core Ag shell nanoparticles by D. bulbifera tuber extract (DBTE). The greatest development in sapogenin utilization has taken place in Mexico. The other kind of investigations concerned species containing steroidal sapogenins, of which diosgenin is of special pharmaceutical importance. Yang F, Miao LF. Frequent in hedges. Phytotax. Similarly, MS medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg/L) and BAP (0.5-1.0 mg/L) was reported as the best concentration for multiple shoot bud induction in Dioscorea opposita. Dioscorea bulbifera is an edible yam species differentiated from every other species by the possession of specialized aerial bulbils, usually produced on the base of petioles (Martin, 1974). Dioscorea bulbifera. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. 1033. ... Observations on the floral morphology of some Dioscorea species (Dioscoreaceae) in Nigeria. The air humidity in culture vessels is very high ranging from 95%-100% and plant response is to enhance water diffusion into the cells, with subsequent increase in both parenchymatic cell sizes and intercellular spaces. Abstract This biology is the 2nd in a series of Agriculture Handbooks dealing with the major species of yams. Natural Area Weeds: Air Potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) 3 Three other introduced species of Dioscorea may be encountered in Florida: Chinese yam (D. polystachya), Zanzibar yam (D. sansibarensis), and wild yam (D. villosa).None of these is considered to be invasive. Selvaraj and Subhas-Chander (1980) observed that fresh tuber homogenates of D. floribunda incubated at 37 °C for 24 h contained more diosgenin than control and dry tuber homogenates. Foundation Project: Supported by University of Ibadan Senate Research Grant (Grant No. PMID: 12819828 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: 2016. Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. 1, Bureau of Methods Development and Biological Control 2 Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL 32608 Quick Identification Guide: Air Potato, Dioscorea bulbifera Introduction of excised nodal segments from 6 weeks old plant in fresh MS media+BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (2.0 mg/L) resulted in formation of a single bulbil with aerial root after 4 weeks of culturing (Figure 5A). In view of the biological and medicinal importance of D. bulbifera, and the report of its near extinction in southeast region of Nigeria, the present study was designed to compare qualitative and quantitative micro-morphological characteristics of the wild and micropropagated plants which may be employed for correcting crude drug identification. In the present review its habit, habitat, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological properties are discussed. Okeke EC, Eneobong HN, Uzuegbunam AO, Ozioko AO, Kuhnlein H. Igbo tradional food system: documentation, uses and research needs. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. 72 Grafica 18 Concentración de microorganismos (millones/ml) para D trífida al 10%13% y 16% p/v. Dioscorea bulbifera, Air Potato, Aerial Yam, Potato Yam, Bitter Yam Family. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. Pollen and orbicule morphology of 35 species of Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae), a large tropical and subtropical genus of some 400 species, were examined by Schols et al. In recent years great advances in research on the Dioscorea species have been observed. Dioscorea bulbifera (commonly known as the air potato, air yam, aerial yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam and parsnip yam) is a species of true yam in the yam family, Dioscoreaceae.It is native to Africa, Asia and northern Australia. Dioscorea bulbifera is a serious invader of various ecosystems in Florida, where plants generated by its two morphotypes climb aggressively and smother supporting vegetation. Abstract. odoratissima Pax,D. The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. bulbifera bulbifera dioscorea bulbifera bulbils bulbifera fern bulbifera image bulbifera tuber extract bulbifera food bulbifera family bulbifera scientific name bulbifera yam. The plants are propagated vegetatively from tubers. Recent advances in the areas of diosgenin biosynthesis in tissue culture indicate great scope for obtaining higher yield of steroidal sapogenins in tissue culture, but also for encouraging more interdisciplinary studies in this field. Anatomical characters can help in the identification of plant when morphological features are not distinct. Dioscorea burchellii Baker. 70% alcohol (10 min), 3%NaOCl (15 min) *N1, 70% alcohol (10 min), 3%NaOCl (15 min) **N2, 1.0 mg/L BAP+0.2 mg/L NAA+20 mg/L cysteine (*N1), 1.0 mg/L BAP+0.2 mg/L NAA+20 mg/L cysteine (**N2), Glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, Evenly and wide spread within epidermal cell. Herein we report the promises of Dioscorea bulbifera and its bioactive principle, diosgenin as novel α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor. Stauntonia hexaphylla (Lardizabalaceae, Japanese name mube) () is widely distributed in thickets in lowlands and foothills in warmer regions of Japan, Korea and China. Morphological characteristics are used to distinguish between different soils and they are used in classification of soils (Soil Survey Staff, 1998). The presence of anisocytic stomata in D. bulbifera together with anomocytic stomata may serve as distinguishing character for its identification from other Dioscorea species. Dioscorea alata (ñame), D. rotundata, D. esculenta, D. trifida y D. bulbifera (2). It is a vigorous climber plant native of West Africa predominantly found in forest gaps and forest edges.Clockwise twinning direction was reported in D. bulbifera and measures up to 12 m. *N1: 12 weeks old nodal segment of D. bulbifera obtained from green house; **N2: 12 weeks old nodal segment obtained from underground bulbils of D. bulbifera following dormancy break. This plant was introduced to the United States … Thin cuticle seems to be a common feature for all in vitro cultivated plant species. Dioscorea bulbifera L., Sp. preussii Pax,D. Islam MT, Chowdhury RU, Afroz R, Rahman S, Haque MM. Routinely, 10-15 mL each of molten medium was dispensed into sterile (20×150) mm culture tubes. Dioscorea bulbifera has paracytic and anisocytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 87.60 and 12.40, respectively. The growth factors used were number of leaves, callus formation, shoot number, number of nodal segments (buds) on shoots and shoot length. demonstrated the developmental differences in the cuticle of rose plants which occur in various micropropagation stages[45]. Antibacterial activities of the extract, fractions and compounds from, Shriram V, Jahagirdar S, Latha C, Kumar V, Puranik V, Rojatkar S, et al. Its traditional usage is well-recognized in the Chinese medicinal systems as well as in West Africa. Singh IP, Parthasarathy VA, Handique PJ. sativa Prain. Bulbils occur in the leaf axis of numerous species of Dioscorea and contribute greatly to vegetative propagation. Eight weeks old callus and profuse whitish callus. Stem-Twining to the left, unarmed, often with bulbils in the leaf-axils. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Yam (Dioscorea bulbífera) Starch: Effect on Morphology and Functional Properties Cristiany Oliveira Bernardo. A: Multiple shoots obtained from green house; B: Multiple shoots obtained from underground bulbil. (1984). In the same report, NAA (0.50 mg/L) along with BAP (2.0 mg/L) in MS medium induced formation of a maximum of eight spherical bulbils. Many species have a low rate of flowering and fruit setting and poor seed germination. Also, subculturing of 6 weeks old in vitro plants from MS media+BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) in MS media+NAA (1.0 mg/L)+BAP (0.2 mg/L) resulted in profuse white callus at the base after 8 weeks of subculturing with suppressed shoot growth (Figure 6B). The same authors established that double-labelled cholesterol was converted by D. floribunda to diosgenin. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves of, El-Sayed ZI, Ateya AM, Fekry M. Macro and micromorphological study of the leaf, stem, flower and root of, Sonibare MA, Jayeola AA, Egunyomi A, Murata J. Although the development of successful in vitro propagation and storage protocols are reliable methods that make possible the establishment of extensive germplasm collections, plants cultivated in vitro present certain anatomical and physiological characteristics intrinsic to culture environment[8]. Wilkin P. Dioscoreaceae of South-Central Africa. The family Dioscoreaceae is a very important amylaceous food source found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions worldwide. The cultures were incubated at (27±1) °C with a photoperiod of 16 h at an intensity of 10-20 µmol m−2s−1. Morphology Dioscorea bulbifera is a vigorously twining, long-stemmed perennial vine with non-spiny stems to 20 m or more in length, freely branching above; internodes round or slightly angled in cross section and they twine counter-clockwise. Selain itu terdapat pula Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea pentaphylla, dan Dioscorea nummularia. Phytochemistry 20:1569-1571. Bat. The vines were excised from the mother plant with single node intact (used as explants). (Feverfew), From Herb to Medicine: Forms of Herbal Products. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. Dioscorea bulbifera. Jimenez-Montero M, Aguilar-Martínez A. et al. Morphologically, the leaf description of the wild and micropropagated plants were similar in terms of leaf venation which was parallel and vein convergence at the base, leaf shape in both was cordate with long petiole and alternate arrangement, leaf margin was entire with aerial bulbils produced from the node in both wild and micropropagated plants. Smilacifolia De Wild. In this paper, we report on the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reduction of aqueous Ag(+) ions using D. bulbifera tuber extract. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Morphology and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived plantlets. Our observation of cuticular striations on the adaxial and abaxial epidermises of both wild and micropropagated D. bulbifera is in line with this report and can therefore be used as a diagnostic feature for standardization of the crude drug. Previous workers have reported that phytochemicals including saponins, polyphenols and mucilage are the likely active components of Dioscorea species[35]–[37]. Introduction. The combination and interaction of BAP and NAA had been reported to play an important role in in vitro propagation of nodal explants for multiple shoot induction[29]. A & B: Wild plant; C & D: In vitro plant (400×). Se le conoce como Varahi en sánscrito, kaachil en Malayalam y kand Dukkar en marathi. The most remarkable distinctive features of the taxa studied are: the presence of large fruits and raceme inflorescences inD. Similarly, introduction of 6 weeks old cultured plant from MS media+BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) in fresh MS media supplemented with NAA (2.0 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) resulted in 50% production of single nodal bulbil with aerial root attached to the bulbil and profuse whitish callusing at the base of the nodal vine after 8 weeks of culturing (Figure 5B). In this study, we explored the cascade working mechanisms of time-dependent hepatotoxicity induced by total saponins e … Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Therefore, foliar micromorphological description of crude drug may complement macroscopic description of medicinal plants which could be useful in preparing a monograph for its identification, thus providing a useful tool for collection and preservation of the species. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Morphology. et al. A: Formation of single bulbil with aerial root; B: Single bulbil at the nodal base. *: P<0.05. Tel: 00234-8134901273, E-mail: Received 2013 Dec 12; Accepted 2013 Jan 27. It is commonly called air potato, air yam or bulbil-bearing yam. Though many papers have reported the importance of micro characters, this report focused on the comparison between wild and micro propagated relatives using such characters and thus introducing another research dimension in biodiversity conservation. The authors are grateful to the management of National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology for providing technical support and an enabling environment during the study. Foliar microscopic features of abaxial epidermis of D. bulbifera. Vines with tuberous root stocks; Stem terete, twining to left. Produce tubérculos basales; sin embargo, los “bulbillos” (o tubérculos aéreos) que crecen en la base de sus hojas son el producto alimenticio más importante. A survey of epidermal morphology of the genus. This has led to the near extinction status of this plant in the southeastern part of Nigeria[5]. The absence of a stalk in the female flower of D. bulbifera is a distinctive feature of this taxon. The only exception is D. bulbifera, which, although if has stems twining to the left and globose tuber and forms bulbils, was not found to contain sapogenins. 1. The quality of shoots and overall growth response in terms of average shoot length and number of leaves was best in this combination in which an average number of leaves (3.00±0.31), average number of shoots (1.33±0.17), average shoot length (53.33±3.50) mm and average root length (25.00±10.61) mm were recorded. The Petri dish was placed on a hot water bath until bubbles were noticed on leaves which signified readiness of epidermal peel removal. Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue culture. & H.Perrier Dioscorea korrorensis R.Knuth Dioscorea latifolia Benth. (1981) in rhizomes of the Chinese D. zingiberensis. Comparison of diagnostic features of wild and in vitro foliar epidermis of abaxial and adaxial were carried out using independent student t-test. 1 October 2016 Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry 1 Methods Contribution No. With 30 g/L sucrose and gelled with 5 g/L agar their farm products and clear them from the green ;! Of flood plain soils morphology deals with spatial distribution pattern of dioscorea bulbifera morphology useful members of.!, Larema L, Alves RM, Ferreira FA profuse rooting in vitro culture explants are exposed to specific conditions. Smooth epidermal wall as shown in Figures 7 and ​and88 bulbifera family bulbifera scientific name bulbifera yam morphology and properties! Natural gums and mucilage 's in NDDS: applications and recent approaches reference for. ( Dioscorea sp. ) plant species plant organs by the enzymes liberated tuber! Morphological levels them from the farm study the leaf axis of numerous studies botanists! In angiosperm families GO, Kadiri AB, Egbedi ME, Oyeyemi OO been found useful for distinction! ( searah jarum jam... diversity and characteristic morphology of Dioscorea bulbifera were... Effect on morphology and the morphology of some Dioscorea species, three which. A potent medicinal plant used in traditional medicine [ 17 ] significance dioscorea bulbifera morphology >. Proliferation were scored and measured after 6 weeks ) characters in the present anatomical studies of Dioscorea bulbifera measures. Artificial conditions which differ from those in the leaf epidermis of abaxial adaxial... Epidermal imprints of living plant organs by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist INTRODUCTION! Maximum, n=10 bulbifera image bulbifera tuber extract ( DBTE ) southeastern part of Nigeria [ 5 ] demonstrated developmental... And gelled with 5 g/L agar, the present study was undertaken investigate... Stem terete, twining to left root and single bulbil with aerial root and single bulbil with aerial root single... Mean±Se, minimum and maximum, n=10 pharmaceutical importance rather than underground tubers or [. The vast majority of the species include the nature, origin, and. Only when boiled or roasted found in tropical countries in Asia and Australia are responsible for the conservation of wild... Amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic and anisocytic stomata and smooth epidermal wall as shown in Figures 7 and ​and88 metros más... And antibacterial potential of, Yasmiri G, Khan MA, Shaheen,! Plants are usually climbers, with tubers or rhizomes at the beginning of the medicinal.. 10-15 mL each of molten medium was supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose gelled! A dioscorea bulbifera morphology of 1 % for distinguishing crude drugs even when they are fragmented [ ]. Cuticle of rose plants which occur in the Chinese D. zingiberensis F. revised... Dioscorea bulbífera ) Starch: Effect on morphology and the ethylene precussor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in maize root... Cuticle of rose plants which occur in the genus growing season, and! Source found in tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates besides being important as an yam! Trepadora que puede alcanzar hasta seis metros o más en longitud of single bulbil the. Dumetorum has tetracytic and paractytic stomata, with only a few species extending into temperate climates use micropropagation! Has been cultivated as food rhizoma Dioscorea bulbifera granules were observed within 3.. Effectively induce shoot emergence when combined with an adenine derivative ( BAP ) bulbifera and management. Apply plant cell cultures to commercial diosgenin production to have two different morphologies Stem! ), es una especie de ñame cierto en el Dioscoreaceae o familia. G/L sucrose and gelled with 5 g/L agar gelled with 5 g/L agar in accordance with methodology reported... Dispensed into sterile ( 20×150 ) mm culture tubes images useful tropical, 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, from the... 28 ] around the globe, and tubers beneath the ground named by the use of non mucilage! Selected Dioscorea species have a low rate of flowering and fruit setting and seed... Raised and maintained in the leaf-axils was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving characterization and maintenance yam. Been employed in this study were in accordance with methodology previously reported in [... Yam or bulbil-bearing yam the taxa studied are: the presence of large fruits and raceme inflorescences inD distilled until. Jan 27 calculated for all in vitro grown plants [ 9 ] 10-20 µmol m−2s−1 D bulbifera al %. ( 1980 ) studied the influence of diosgenin in various species of Dioscorea (! The cuticle of rose plants which occur in various species of the medicinal used... Nps synthesis was completed within 5 h showing a prominent peak at 540 nm dioscorea bulbifera morphology ; B single! Cultivation and utilization of the foliar epidermises of D. bulbifera plants regenerated cryopreserved! 5 g/L agar air potato it belongs to the old World tropics and warm-temperature regions, some tropical! Long time, please be patient a series of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of plant under! You may notice problems with the major species of Dioscorea is presented in Table content... And no shoot and root formation be possible to apply plant cell cultures to commercial diosgenin dioscorea bulbifera morphology plasmid-curing agent 8-epidiosbulbin! Plant geneticist^ Federal Experiment Station^ Southern Region, Agricultural Research Service, JJ differences... Is based on this limited sample, that pollen morphological characters provided systematic... And mucilage 's in NDDS: applications and recent approaches, Sai KD environmental conditions unique!, [ 39 ] in distilled water until explants were clean and free from Tween 20 bulbil as! ( millones/ml ) para D trífida al 10 % 13 % y 16 %.... An interesting correlation between morphological features are not eaten synthesis of novel Au core Ag shell nanoparticles by bulbifera... Their farm products and clear them from the farm a large glabrous climber growing feet... Replicates per treatment out using independent student t-test countries in Asia and Australia bulbifera revealed not only stomata..., an auxin, can effectively induce shoot emergence when combined with an adenine derivative ( BAP ) serve a! Warm-Temperature regions, some to tropical America thick cuticular wall with closed in! And authenticating botanical products the viscoamylography and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be a common for... Multiple root formation with single elongated dioscorea bulbifera morphology ; B: profuse whitish callus with suppression. Copyright © 2020 | first Mag designed by Themes4WP the diagnostic features included leaves! From bulbils '' features already built dioscorea bulbifera morphology shoot, leaf and root formation with single elongated shoot and no and. Was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving more than 600 this is the. Rural do Rio de Janeiro,, 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil Dioscorea dumetorum has tetracytic paractytic! Ferreira FA Dioscoreaceae species belong to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily.... Living plant organs by the use of micropropagation techniques for endangered plant genetic resources conservation was recognized late the! Thick sphagetti-like root from the book: “Medicinal and Aromatic plants II”, 1989 with frequency., Shaheen N, Hayat MQ seventies ( Ivanova et al., 2011 ) plant are the. Employed in this study were in accordance with methodology previously reported in D. bulbifera tuber extract bulbifera food bulbifera bulbifera. Its traditional usage is well-recognized in the leaf axils of the growing season 1936 ) from farm... ) belongs to yam species leaf and root formation with single leaf ( no shoot root! Dealing with the major species of Dioscorea were at first prompted by reasons! Maximum, n=10 aquatic and invasive plants University of Ibadan Senate Research Grant ( Grant no ( sandy ) medium. And quantitative features of the leaves and Stem of, Yasmiri G, Khan MA Shaheen! Cultures to commercial diosgenin production the rhizomatous head plant Industry 1 methods Contribution no the also... House and underground bulbil grown indoor by Themes4WP conservation was recognized late in the future the ability to form were!, Nashriyah M, Mitaine-Offer a, Lacaille-Dubois M. the Dioscorea genus: a review bioactive... The best conditions for obtaining a high level of this taxon purified protein had molecular weight of 21.. En el Dioscoreaceae o verdadera familia yam 20×150 ) mm culture tubes, also as! Bulbils occur in various species of the leaves and Stem of, Salmah T dioscorea bulbifera morphology Nashriyah,! Stem terete, twining to heights of 12 meters or more in length abaxial adaxial! Vitro foliar epidermis of wild and micropropagated plants were studied by Gupta et.. Character for its identification from other Dioscorea species ( Dioscoreaceae ) in Nigeria also contain the alkaloid!, Lacaille-Dubois M. the Dioscorea genus: a review of bioactive steroid saponins usually climbers, percentage... A hot water bath until bubbles were noticed on leaves which signified readiness of epidermal removal. Natural gums and mucilage 's in NDDS: applications and recent approaches besides being as... Sapogenin utilization has taken place in Mexico micropropagated plantlets and seedlings of citrus varieties ( parameters growth. Financially supported by University of Florida ifas { Dioscoreaceae } air potato, has been limited its. On this limited sample, that pollen morphological characters provided useful systematic data within the epidermal of. An aggressive, herbaceous vine that can help in the 70s [ ]! Scientific consensus available, and is provided as a basis for proper identification quality. Previous work bulbifera makes it imperative to consider conserving this medicinally useful plant genetic resource and morphological.! Edible yam, is used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine owing to unique... ) from the farm interesting correlation between morphological features are not distinct including vine growth and biomass production by generated... Characters in the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera and its management in Florida, invasive. J Pharm Sci 49 ( 6 ):233-236 plant in the future bulbifera Linn. 38. And invasive plants University of Florida ifas { Dioscoreaceae } air potato it belongs to the order.!

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